AA / Ankara – Alex Sinhan Bogmis
Although the Entente States, which won the war, made peace treaties with Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria, which were defeated in the war, they were unable to fully hear about the partition of the Ottoman state, and therefore postponed negotiations with the Turks.
At the end of an agreement, the Entente States had the Treaty of Sèvres signed on August 10, 1920 at the Ceramics Museum of Sèvres, in the Paris suburbs, by the Ottoman delegation made up of Riza Tevfik (Bolukbasi) and the Bern ambassador Resad Halis under the coordination of Hadi Pasha, member of the Ayan Assembly, August 10, 1920.
Although the agreement focused on 433 articles, containing substantial texts on the division of Turkish lands, was signed, it was stillborn before its entry into force thanks to the National Struggle initiated by the Turkish nation under the leadership of the great leader Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder of the Republic.
Sèvres disappears definitively with the Treaty of Lausanne signed on July 24, 1923, after the War of Independence.
– “Sèvres is a dead treaty, both on paper and in practice”
Professor Yilmaz Odabasi, lecturer in the Department of History at Uskudar University, made the following statements on the Treaty of Sèvre.
“Our founder Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, speaking of Sèvres at a conference, said: ‘This is the last bulwark of a great assassination destined to destroy the Turkish nation for hundreds of years.’
You have to go back to understand Sèvres and those who signed the treaty that day. In fact, only the names of the actors change in historical events, but the staged project always remains the same.
Even today, the main concern of great states is to dominate the world. Likewise, when we look at the great states in the 18th century, we see that this was their main concern. At that time, the Ottomans dominated lands of great geostrategic importance. When the Ottoman Empire began to decline, lost World War I, and signed the Mondros Armistice, the Western states could not agree on the division of the Ottoman Empire.
Even British Admiral Sir Roberck described Sèvres as a “death warrant” and did not hesitate to let it be known. As we can see, Sèvres was a real death sentence. It is a project that aimed to wipe the Turks and Ottomans off the face of the Earth. It was intended to turn the Ottomans into a colony by compressing them into a small area. According to this treaty, article 433, a small land was mentioned in Central Anatolia as the Land of the Ottoman State.
The army, finances, transport routes would be under the control of the Entente States. Capitulations were once again the order of the day. In Sèvres, there was also a project to create a State of Armenia and Kurdistan in the East and in the South-East. In fact, all of these articles were measures to wipe the Turks off the map. “
Odabasi pointed out that the conditions of Sèvres were too onerous, that even the then sultan, Vahdettin, and the authorities around him reacted to this treaty by saying:
“The government of Istanbul has long refused to sign Sevres, but the opposing side was very determined, it mobilized the Greeks of Western Thrace to intimidate the Turkish side. When the enemy started to advance towards Payita, the treaty was accepted by the Sultanate Council.
The resolution also had to be approved by the Mebusan Assembly and Sultan Vahdettin. But at that time, the Mebusan Assembly was on vacation. In fact, therefore, the signed treaty had no legal basis. This is the reason why it is called “stillborn alliance”. And even if it were signed, our nation would have waged a war of independence because our nation would not have accepted it. Sèvres was therefore a dead treaty, both on paper and in practice. “
Yilmaz Odabasi pointed out that the transition to the regular army and the victory of the battles of Inonu and Sakarya also caused Sèvres to die.
“Sakarya’s victory is a victory in which the plans for destruction of the Turkish nation were decimated. It must be emphasized. With this victory, France understood that it could not get by in Anatolia and signed a treaty with the Turks without even informing his British ally. In this way we destroyed two important forces on the enemy front, “he added.
Odabasi claimed that the result of continued war gains with the Great Offensive was the Treaty of Lausanne.
“In this sense, Lausanne is a fundamental document for us, it is the treaty that ended the First World War. We fixed our borders and the Muazzama confirmed all our rights. Sèvres therefore has no gasoline. “
– “With Sèvres, it was a question of establishing a colonial state doomed to extinction”
Associate Professor of Ataturk Principles and History of the Revolution at the Technical University of Istanbul, Professor Eminalp Malkoc, for his part, declared that after the Treaty of Sèvres, the Entente States joined forces. are confused about the partition of the Ottoman Empire.
After the revolution, Russia’s withdrawal from the war further exposed issues of partition between the Entente states, Malkoc said, noting that Sevr was not initially accepted by the current administration in December.
The problems regarding the partition between the Entente powers arose with Russia’s withdrawal from the war after the revolution, Malkoc said, adding that Sèvres was not initially accepted by the current administration.
Malkoc stressed that Sèvres is the main reason for the national struggle.
“Sèvres is also one of the developments which determined the codes of establishment of the Republic of Turkey. Sèvres is in this sense a breaking point. Sèvres was a real project of destruction. In this case, the Turkish people had to l ‘accept or fight. At this stage, Sèvres became the starting point of the national struggle. An institutional struggle was therefore needed against Sèvres. Mustafa Kemal Pasha defined this institutional structure even before coming to Istanbul and developed it step by step. Look at the circulars he prepared after his departure for Samsun, it is like a matryoshka. Each circular lays the foundation for the next. It was a chance for Turkey. Sèvres was intended to establish a Colonial state doomed to extinction. Thus, without understanding Sèvres, it is impossible to understand neither the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, nor the modernization efforts, nor the Treaty of Lausanne, “he continued.
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