All 2021 Nobel Prize winners announced. However, due to the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic, the Nobel Prize winners’ ceremony and gala banquet in Stockholm have been canceled this year as well.
American physiologist David Julius and American molecular biologist and neurobiologist Ardem Pataputyan became Nobel Prize winners in medicine and physiology in 2021.
The prize was awarded for the discovery of temperature and touch receptors.
The announcement of the laureate was broadcast live on October 4 on the website of the Nobel Committee.
Julius and Pataputyan found out how nerve impulses are excited, thanks to which we can feel temperature and touch.
These sensations underlie our interaction with the outside world, but until recently the mechanism of their occurrence was not completely clear.
These discoveries, the committee said, broadened our understanding of how the nervous system perceives heat, cold, and mechanical stress.
They found missing links in knowledge about how receptors and the environment interact.
The next day, October 5, the committee announced the Nobel Prize winners in physics 2021. They were Shukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselman and Giorgio Parisi.
Japanese meteorologist and climatologist Manabe and oceanographer and climate modeler from Germany Hasselman will receive one part of the award “for physical modeling of the Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliable prediction of global warming.”
The committee noted that Manabe and Hasselman have revolutionized the understanding of complex systems.
The Italian theoretical physicist Parisi will receive the second part of the prize “for the discovery of the interaction of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atoms to planetary scales.”
On October 6, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2021 was awarded to German chemist Benjamin List and Scottish American scientist David Macmillan.
Liszt and McMillan received the award for the development of asymmetric organic catalysis, a new and ingenious tool for building molecules.
It is noted that this method has significantly influenced the development of new drugs and made chemistry more environmentally friendly.
Last year, American biochemist Jennifer A. Doudna and French microbiologist Emmanuelle Charpentier received the award for the development of the CRISPR / Cas9 genome editing method.
This was the first time that the Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to female nominees.
On October 7, the Nobel Prize in Literature for 2021 was awarded to 73-year-old Zanzibar-born writer Abdulrazak Gurne.
“Gourna was honored with this award for uncompromising and sensual exposure of the consequences of colonialism and the fate of refugees in the maelstrom of cultures and continents. His commitment to truth and avoidance of oversimplification attracts attention. Through his novels, he reveals the cultural diversity of East Africa, free from stereotypes and unfamiliar to many in other parts of the world, ”the Swedish Academy said in a statement.
Abdulrazak Gurna was born in 1948 on the island of Zanzibar and fled to the UK in 1960. The author has ten novels and a series of short stories.
On October 8, the Nobel Committee awarded the 2021 Peace Prize to Filipino journalist Maria Ress and editor-in-chief of Russia’s Novaya Gazeta, Dmitry Muratov.
“Dmitry Muratov and Maria Ressa were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for their services to democracy and their efforts to defend freedom of expression. Free, independent and factual journalism protects against abuse of power, lies and war propaganda, ”said Berit Reiss-Andersen, chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, in a statement.
Novaya Gazeta is by far the most independent Russian newspaper and is fundamentally critical of the government, ”the Nobel Committee said.
Muratov was one of the founders of the Russian newspaper Novaya Gazeta in 1993.
Filipino-American journalist and writer Maria Ressa is the co-founder and CEO of the Philippine news portal Rappler.
Finally, on October 11, the Nobel Committee announced the names of the winners of the Alfred Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
This year’s Nobel Prize winners in economics are Canadian David Card and two Americans, Joshua Angrist and Guido Imbens.
Card received the award for “Empirical Contribution to Labor Economics”, Angrist and Imbens – for “Methodological Contribution to the Analysis of Causality.”
The work of three economists leads to the development of a new understanding of the labor market, showed what conclusions can be drawn from natural experiments in terms of cause and effect relationships. The approaches have spread to other fields and radically changed empirical research.
Nobel laureates in economics receive $ 1.1 million in addition to the gold medal.
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