World35 years have passed since the death of Turkey's third President Celal...

35 years have passed since the death of Turkey’s third President Celal Bayar


Celal Bayar, the third President of TurkeyIt has been 35 years since his death.

According to the information compiled by the AA correspondent, Bayar was born in 1883 in the Umurbey village of the Gemlik district of Bursa. Completing his primary and secondary education in Umurbey and then going to İpek Vocational School in Bursa, Bayar studied at College Francais de l’Assomption. Working in the fields of law and banking, Bayar had three children, Refi, Turgut and Nilüfer, with Reşide Hanım, the daughter of İnegöllüzade Refet Bey, whom he married in 1903.

Bayar, who joined the “Cluster”, the secret branch of the Committee of Union and Progress in Bursa, in 1907, was sent to Izmir on a special mission in order to accelerate the activities of the society in the Aegean region and increase its effectiveness in the region.

Bayar, who secretly left Bursa to fight the Bulgarian armies in the Balkan War, went first to the military headquarters in Istanbul and then to the front. took an active role.

He had to change his name

Bayar, who had to change his name because of his Unionist identity and the arrest warrant, made propaganda against the occupation by wandering around the region under the pseudonym “Galip Hodja”, like Zeybek and village teacher, when the danger of an invasion of Izmir appeared. When Aydın was occupied, Bayar worked to organize the people against the Greek forces. At the meeting held before the Balıkesir Congress, Bayar was given the title of “Civil Regiment Command”, and in the congress unanimously, the title of “Akhisar National Regiment Commander”.

He became a name that Atatürk praised

Bayar’s efforts during the years of the National Struggle also caused the praise of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Turkish Republic and the leader of the National Struggle. Atatürk, who included Bayar’s name in the Nutuk, used the following expressions:

“After the occupation of İzmir, around Aydın, soldiers and some patriots from the public were working to defend against the Greeks, to encourage the people and to establish an armed national organization. Celal Bey) his effort and sacrifice are worth mentioning.”

Listed on the “Wanted and to be captured” list

Celal Bayar, who was shown as a Saruhan (Manisa) deputy candidate in the 1919 elections held for the convening of the Ottoman Parliament, was elected as a deputy and obtained the right to attend the last Ottoman Parliamentary Assembly to be held in Istanbul. Despite being on the “wanted and to be caught” list of the Istanbul government, Bayar joined the last Ottoman Parliamentary Assembly on January 12, 1920, as a deputy of Saruhan Sanjak.

While Istanbul and the Ottoman Parliament were occupied on March 16, 1920, deputies supporting the National Struggle were exiled to Malta. However, Bayar escaped exile to Malta at the last moment, as he learned in advance the news that the Assembly would be invaded. Members of the Ottoman Parliament, except those who were exiled to Malta, began to gather in Ankara, the center of the National Struggle.

The Grand National Assembly was opened in Ankara on April 23, 1920, while Bayar was fulfilling his duty to suppress the Anzavur Uprising with the instruction he received from Atatürk. Therefore, Bayar joined the Assembly 2 weeks late.

He worked on the economy

Bayar, who served as a deputy in the First Grand National Assembly, became the Minister of Economy on February 27, 1921. Bayar, who attended the Lausanne Peace Conference as a consultant, drew attention with his proposal about Ottoman debts and their payment methods. Suggesting the method of paying the debts with coupons instead of gold, Bayar thus laid the groundwork for easing the economic burden of the young Republic to a large extent.

Bayar, who entered the Second Grand National Assembly as an İzmir deputy after the 1923 elections, was appointed to the Ministry of Exchange, Development and Settlement in March 1924 and resigned from this position in July of the same year to organize the establishment of İşbank. Playing an important role in the establishment of İşbank, Bayar assumed the position of general manager until 1932.

Bayar served as the Minister of Economy between 1932 and 1937, while he was the prime minister between 1937 and 1939.

Supported İnönü’s presidency

After the death of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk on November 10, 1938, Celal Bayar, in consultation with Field Marshal Fevzi Çakmak, supported İsmet İnönü’s election as President despite many differences of opinion. Bayar then continued his political life as an İzmir deputy.

Bayar, who founded the Democrat Party (DP) with Adnan Menderes, Fuat Köprülü and Refik Koraltan in January 1946, was appointed as the party chairman after the multi-party political life began.

Celal Bayar became the President and Refik Koraltan became the Speaker of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey under the DP government, which came to power with the great support of the people in May 1950. The first Adnan Menderes government took office on 22 May 1950.

Bayar was elected as the third president of Turkey by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on May 22, 1950.

His path ended with a military coup.

The path that Bayar and his friends set out with the slogan “Enough is the word of the nation”, who carried out important works in the field of democratization and emancipation, ended with the military coup of 27 May 1960.

President Celal Bayar, Prime Minister Adnan Menderes, government members, DP deputies, Chief of General Staff General Rüştü Erdelhun, soldiers and some high-level public officials were detained. All detainees were imprisoned in Yassıada.

The trials in Yassıada started on 14 October 1960 and were concluded on 15 September 1961. The cases collected in a total of 19 files were combined with the “Violation of the Constitution” case. As a result of the trials, Bayar was sentenced to death by the Yassıada Court on September 15, 1961. Bayar, whose sentence was commuted to life imprisonment due to the age limit, was released on 7 November 1964 due to his illness.

Celal Bayar passed away on August 22, 1986 in Istanbul.

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